Have you ever seen Aurora in your life ? if yes,then you are very lucky and I am very jealous because I have not seen it. Well, we have studied during schooling that there are 3 states of matter i.e. solid, liquid and gas but there exists another one called plasma. Before we begin, we have to look over how plasma is formed:

When we heat solids they convert into liquids and upon heating liquids they convert into gases and on further heating at high temperature gases convert to a 4th state of matter called plasma. When High energy is provided, the electrons get excited & leave the atom and create positive and negative charge. and thus it has free electrons, it conducts electricity but overall plasma is neutral because it has equal number of positive and negative charge.

This is the history of formation of plasma but how can this result into the formation of such a beautiful scene in our planet so called Aurora? Are these Aurora formed on other plants, how the plasma particles are formed in solar system and many more questions arise. So let’s clear these questions..

So let’s begin from the big star of our solar system and which is responsible for everything that occurs in our planet. It releases huge amount of energy and along with this, it also releases many particles with it. this energy is created deep inside the core of sun. and the temperature inside the core is very high which is upto 14 million degrees & is sufficient enough to cerate plasma particles. Inside the core the temperature and pressure is very high that the hydrogen atoms are squeezed into another element called helium.This nuclear reaction releases energy. and gases particles get converted into plasma particles and travel with a speed of 8 million kilometres per an hour. As they travel at very high speed, from the core of sun they form a magnetic field inside the sun and leave the sun surface and travel the entire solar system. These bunch of plasma particles are called solar storm or solar wind. and carry the capability to destroy every thing that comes in their path. but the question again arises here that, what about the earth ? why can’t earth be destroyed by this solar storm. again the earth complies its duty to save the life on it by its magnetic field present around it.

In the way it protects us from from UV rays by Ozone layer but this time it secures us in a different way.
When these particles enter the Earth’s magnetic field they get rippled or diverted from their path and thus earth’s magnetic field acts as a shield. but how can this result in the formation of Such a beautiful Aurora?

We all know that at poles, the magnetic field of earth is weak and due to this, few plasma particles enter the earth atmosphere through North and South poles that is why Aurora are formed at poles. as the earth atmosphere consists of various gases such as oxygen and nitrogen. these plasma particles collide with these gas particles and during collision, energy is released in the form of light and resulting in the formation of such a beautiful scene called Aurora. As other planets also have their own magnetic field and gases on their planets, Aurora might be formed on those planets too.

But how different colours are formed in aurora. it’s simple as earth consists of oxygen and nitrogen in large quantities and when plasma particles collides with oxygen they emit green and red light and when collide with nitrogen they emit blue or purple colour light.

Earth saved us from harmful particles and rays so it’s our time to save the Earth by going green, stay green.

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Ashok Kumar Choudhary

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