temperature

Before I begin I would like to congratulate China for its success in Achieving 100 million degrees Celcius of temperature for 10 seconds whereas the temperature of the core of the sun is 15 million degrees Celcius which is higher than the temperature of the core of the sun.

temperature

As we all know that India and China are the larger importers of crude oil. By doing so they have proved the world, that such a high temperature can be achieved and can fulfill the needs of their as well as other country’s energy needs.

But the question arises that how did they attempt this ? and is it possible to hold such a high temperature, is there exists any material that can withstand such a high temperature?

Before I answer all these questions lets discuss the basic science involving in Chinese experiment.

As the temperature is very high then there must be some reaction going on in this, and this reaction is similar to the reaction happening inside the sun.

In the core of the sun, nuclear fusion takes place and this leads to high temperature and is uncontrollable. Thermonuclear fusion is also nuclear fusion reaction which occurs at very high temperature and releases high energy and this energy is such high that it cannot be controlled.

The hydrogen bomb is an example of this uncontrolled thermonuclear fusion.
And no matter exists on this planet that can confine the plasma particles and can withstand such a high temperature this is the reason for the uncontrollable reaction.

But we can’t lose hope, scientists have been working on this and finally came up with few solutions to control this reaction to some extent and finally Chinese succeeded in this for few seconds.

Magnetic Confinement, Inertial Confinement, Gravitational Confinement, and Electrostatic Confinement are the few methods by which we can control thermonuclear fusion reaction.

In the core of the sun, the temperature is so high that hydrogen atom splits into electron and nuclei and these particles are called as plasma particles and move with high speed.

But the question is that how these plasma particles are confined in sun to carry nuclear fusion. Well, the answer is Gravitational Confinement. The mass of the sun is high enough to confine the plasma particles in the core of the sun. Due to high mass, the pressure on the nuclei is high enough to combine and releases high energy.

But to create a sun on the earth by using gravitational Confinement is not feasible. So the scientists came up with a device called Tokamak which works on the principal called Magnetic Confinement.

Tokamak is a circular tube of doughnut shape having electromagnet with the strong magnetic field of toroidal shape on the doughnut shape tube and the magnetic field generated by this electromagnet is called toroidal magnetic field and the direction of toroidal magnetic field is along the tube of Tokamak. And the fuel used in this fusion reaction is hydrogen or isotopes of hydrogen eg- deuterium, tritium, Which are readily available on the earth surface as well as in oceans.

To start the reaction, Tokamak tube is filled with fuel and is heated so that the hydrogen gets converted into plasma and moves in all directions inside the tube. But due to the presence of the magnetic field, they get confined in a particular direction and the wall of the Tokamak is prevented from getting in contact with plasma particles. As they move with high velocity and get collide with one another and releases a lot of energy. As plasma particles are charged particles and are moving with high velocity so they will have their magnetic field which is called as a poloidal magnetic field which helps them to maintain their path inside the Tokamak tube. The temperature of these plasma particles reaches 100 million degrees Celsius to 150 million degrees Celsius. The energy released in this process can be further utilized in power generation.

As we can see that fuel used is hydrogen it does not emit greenhouse gases but releases helium which is entirely environment-friendly. Whereas in a nuclear fission power plant, nuclear waste is generated which ultimately affects the life on earth. But nuclear fusion is entirely environment-friendly and can be a future source of energy.

By the nuclear fusion process, the energy generated by using one glass of water is equal to the energy generated by burning 2000 gallons of fuel.

We have only one earth to live, to prevent it from being polluted.

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Ashok Kumar Choudhary

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